News & Blog

Information on all things hips and knees

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The two main types of knee surgery are:

An arthroscope (a tube with a small camera on the end), is inserted into a small incision made in the knee. The images from the camera are displayed on a monitor for your surgeon to see, and the procedure is carried out via another small incision in the knee.

Total or partial knee replacements are commonly performed on knee joints. During a knee replacement the worn out joint is removed and is totally or partially replaced with an artificial joint.

Mako robotic assisted surgery allows your knee surgeon to create a 3D model of your knee and to create a personalised surgical plan. Pre-defined plans with real-time tracking feedback allows your surgeon to operate to extreme accuracy. Robotic knee surgery is more accurate than manual techniques and helps to preserve healthy bone and tissue, which results in a faster recovery and less post-operative pain.

The most frequently performed knee operations are:

  • Meniscus surgery

The meniscus is cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and thighbone. If you are experiencing knee pain, swelling, and difficulty extending or bending the knee then you may have damaged or torn your meniscus.

Arthroscopic knee surgery is used to repair the damaged meniscus. This can be performed as a partial meniscectomy or meniscal repair to remove or repair the damaged tissue. Meniscus transplant surgery can be performed to replaced the whole meniscus and replace with donor tissue.

  • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL)

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) connects the thighbone to the shinbone and stabilises the knee joint and is one of the most common sporting injuries. If you are struggling to bare weight, have swelling, severe pain and ‘popping’ in the knee, then you may have a ruptured ACL.

ACL reconstruction is carried our via a knee arthroscopy. It consists of taking tissue from elsewhere in your body to replace the ligament. It is also possible to use donor tissue or an artificial graft.

  • Patellar tendon repair

The patella tendon connects the bottom of the knee cap to the shinbone. If you have pain and tenderness in your kneecap, swelling and difficulty bending and straightening the leg then you may have damaged your patella tendon.

The damaged parts of the tendon are removed and then stitched back together. If your patellar tendon is badly ruptured you may have the tendon replaced with tissue from elsewhere in the body or with donor tissue.

  • Investigation of the knee joint

Knee arthroscopies are often performed to take a look inside the knee joint to investigate any abnormalities inside the joint.

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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A hip replacement is surgery to replace the hip joint with a prosthetic. It is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic hip operations.

What does the hip joint consist of?

The hip joint is made up of two bones, the femur (thighbone), and the pelvis. The femoral head situated at the top of the thighbone is often described as the ‘ball’, and the part of the pelvis where the ball should sit, the acetabulum, is often referred to as the ‘socket’.

Why would I need a hip replacement?

There are many reasons why you might need hip replacement surgery. These include:

  • Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is when the cartilage that protects the hip joint wears over time as you age. The friction can cause joint pain and reduce your mobility.

  • A hip fracture

Hip fractures are a crack to the femur (top of the thigh bone), usually caused by trauma or a sports injury.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory conditions when immune system attacks your healthy tissue. The tissue becomes inflamed and painful and if left untreated can cause damage to the joint.

  • Septic arthritis

Septic arthritis can happen following a wound  on your joint which becomes infected. It is less common but if left untreated can be serious.

Types of hip replacement surgery

Your orthopaedic consultant will remove your damaged femoral head ‘ball’ and socket and replace each with prothesis.

Once your implant is in the joint your hip surgeon will bend and move your leg to ensure you have the right level of flexibility and that the fit is correct.

Mr Panos Makrides carries out minimally invasive hip replacement surgery. He cuts a very small incision into the hip and uses equipment designed for this type of surgery in order to reduce damage to the tendons and muscles which in turn produces a faster recovery time.

  • Partial hip replacement surgery

Your consultant orthopaedic surgeon will make an incision remove your damaged femoral head, and replace it with an artificial joint.

  • Hip resurfacing surgery

Similar to a hip replacement operation, hip resurfacing is orthopaedic surgery to treat hip pain. Hip resurfacing trims and shaves the damaged bone and cartilage in your knee joint and a metal protector is put over the femoral head and socket.

Robotic hip replacement is an extremely precise way of performing hip replacement surgery, but with the assistance of a robotic arm. The Mako robotic procedure starts with very precise images being taken of the joint which allow your hip surgeon to take into account the smallest of details of your bone structure, alignment of your hip joints and the surrounding tissue.

The robotic arm positions itself to pre-planned tracking in order to help your surgeon follow the precise lines. This reduces risk of surrounding tissue and muscle being affected which in turn results in a faster recovery time.

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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There are many causes of knee pain, you can view the most common causes here.

If you have a knee condition that is not responding to non surgical treatment, you may require surgery.

The most common types of knee surgery are:

  • Meniscus surgery

The meniscus is cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between the thighbone and shinbone. There are different types of meniscus surgery, the most common being Meniscectomy surgery. This is key hole surgery (arthroscopy) to remove the torn meniscus. Sometimes the meniscus can be repaired instead of removed which in turn can decrease any future risk of arthritis. Another option is knee meniscus transplant surgery, where the damaged meniscus is completely removed and replaced with a donor meniscus. This is done via a knee arthroscopy and may be offered if you have not responded to other meniscus treatment.

  • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL)

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injuries in athletes. It is important as it stabilises the knee.

You may be suitable for treatment which involves taking tissue from other parts of your body to replace your ACL. Tissue can be taken from your patellar tendon, hamstring tendons or quadriceps tendon.vIt is also possible for donor tissue or an artificial graft to be used.

ACL reconstruction can be carried out via keyhole surgery (arthroscopy), which is a small tube with a light and camera on the end of it which is inserted via a small incision in the joint. Another small cut is made to enable the orthopaedic consultant to insert medical instruments to perform the surgery.

  • Baker’s cyst

A Baker’s cyst is a fluid filled swelling on the back of the knee, which become inflamed and causes pain and clicking of the joint.

It can often go away with rest, anti-inflammatories and steroid injections but if the cyst ruptures and damages your knee you may need a knee arthroscopy to look inside and repair any damage.

  • Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative conditions of the knee due to wear and tear. Mild osteoarthritis may benefit from small changes such as loosing weight so there is less load on the knee joint, but the arthritis is advanced, a knee replacement may be offered.

You can read about the different types of knee replacements here

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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Hip dysplasia, or developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is when the ball and socket part of the hip joint does not form properly in babies. It is most common in the left hip of girls, although both hips can be affected.

This can happen when the socket is slightly too shallow which results in the ball (the femur) not being held in place as tight as it should be. This can result in the femur dislocating.

How is hip dysplasia diagnosed?

Every newborn baby has a physical screening examination, during which the baby’s hips will be checked. If the midwife or doctor thinks there may be an issue, an ultrasound will be scheduled.

How is hip dysplasia treated?

Often a baby’s hip can correct itself within the first few weeks but if it hasn’t then there are treatments available. If hip dysplasia is left untreated it may lead to limping when walking, osteoarthritis of the hip and frequent pain.

If a baby is diagnosed with hip dysplasia in their first few weeks of life, they will likely be fitted with a splint called a Pavlik harness, which holds the baby’s hip in a stable position and is worn for a few weeks.

If the harness has not helped or if the baby is diagnosed later on in life (after 6 months) then surgery may be required. Surgery for hip dysplasia is called reduction surgery. It is carried our under general anaesthetic and surgically places the femur head into the hip socket.

Sometimes mild to moderate cases of DDH are not picked up in infancy which can leave you more prone to getting arthritis in the hip at a younger age. Mr Makrides is a specialist who manages the consequences of hip dysplasia if it was not picked up and corrected in infancy.

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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Joint pain can come with age through wear and tear, as a lifetime of overuse can take its toll on our hips and knees.

The tissue and cartilage that surrounds and protects the joints gradually thins over time which can cause the bones to move less freely. The most common degenerative condition of the hip, knee and sometimes hands is Osteoarthritis.

What can I do to reduce joint pain?

Lifestyle plays a huge part in reducing joint pain. Maintaining a healthy diet as well as regular exercise can have a positive impact, by not only reducing the weight load on the joint but also by building and strengthening the muscle support. Exercise also produces hormones which make you feel good which in turn may alleviate your discomfort level.

Swimming is a great low impact workout and also works your body harder due to the resistance of the water. Regular walking is also beneficial and can not only prevent the onset of pain but also slow down the degeneration of the joint. However, never continue exercising if it is causing you pain.

If your pain is particularly bad to the point where your mobility and movement is limited and the pain is regular on the majority of days then it may be worth seeking professional help.

Why is joint pain worse at certain times of the day?

Joint pain can be worse in the morning due to stiffness from lying still for a long period of time over night. Usually, any discomfort should pass fairly quickly and is a sign of wear and tear on the joints. If it lasts for longer periods of time then you may have a more severe condition of the joint.

Is joint pain more common in women?

Yes, Osteoarthritis most often affects women, mainly after going though the menopause due to the decrease in oestrogen.

What treatments are available for joint pain?

The underlying cause of joint pan will need to be found in order to be treated, however painkillers and anti-inflammatory medication may help initially to reduce swelling and therefore pain. It is also important to maintain a healthy weight and active lifestyle to strengthen the muscle and ease pressure on the joint.

Depending on the condition causing hip and knee pain, treatments available may be a hip arthroscopy, knee arthroscopy, hip replacement or knee replacement.

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the UK. It is a condition that mainly affects women than men and is more common as you age as it is a degenerative condition. It occurs when the cartilage that protects the joints breakdown through wear and tear. Any of the joints in the body can be affected but it most commonly affects the knees, hips and small joints in the hands.

What are the symptoms of osteoarthritis?

The most common symptoms of osteoarthritis are:

  • Joint pain
  • Mobility issues
  • Stiffness of the joint which may be more noticeable after sleeping or inactivity
What are the causes of osteoarthritis?

The causes of the onset of osteoarthritis are not currently known but there are a number of risk factors associated with it:

  • Genetics: In more than 60% of cases, genetic inheritance influences the appearance of osteoarthritis.
  • Physical activity: athletes and people who maintain high physical activity have a higher risk of suffering from osteoarthritis due to the wear on the joint
  • Repetitive movements: those who perform repetitive joint movements in their day, from work or lifestyle can wear down the joints and overload them
  • Menopause: osteoarthritis commonly affects women who have reached menopause due to the decrease in oestrogen
  • Injuries: fractures and traumas in the joints can influence osteoarthritis
  • Obesity: although it does not directly cause the onset of osteoarthritis, obesity influences wear and tear of the joints and therefore the progression of the condition
Can I prevent osteoarthritis?

It isn’t possible to prevent yourself from getting Osteoarthritis completely but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, eating a balanced diet and loosing excess weight would be beneficial.

What are the treatments for osteoarthritis?

Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medication may help initially to reduce swelling and therefore pain. Physical activity is important to strengthen the muscles surrounding the joint and loose weight (if necessary) to reduce the pressure on the joint.

If the osteoarthritis is advanced and not responding to non-surgical treatment then surgery such as a hip replacement of knee replacement may be considered.

How do I book a consultation?

You can book either a face to face or virtual consultation with Mr Makrides by contacting his secretary. You can find her details here.

Appointments are available via private medical insurance or paying for yourself. Click here for the most up to date self funding fees, and here for private medical insurance information.


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Welcome to the Midland Hip and Knee Clinic based at Spire Parkway in Solihull and Spire Little Aston in Sutton Coldfield. We offer Self-funding and Private Insurance payment options.

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